Sudan is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa. Sudan is a member of the United Nations , the African Union , the Arab League , the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement . It’s geography is dominated by the Nile and its tributaries. Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. 70 % of the population are Sudanese Arab. It has a literacy rate of 75.9%. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force. Sudan produces between 75% and 80% of gum Arabic in the world. 46.5% of the Sudanese population lives below the poverty line. Sudan has extensive economic relations with China. China obtains ten percent of its oil from Sudan..
Officially, the president of Sudan is the head of state, head of government and commander in chief. The political system of Sudan is a federal presidential representative democratic republic. The Parliament consists of the National Assembly and Council of States..
Sudan held its general elections in 2010. President Omar al-Bashir , who has held power since 1989 was running for re-election. Some political parties such as the SPLM boycotted the presidential elections citing fears of fraud. Opposition activists claimed rigging. Omar al-Bashir , was re-elected with 68.24% of the votes while his political party, the National Congress won 323 out of 450 seats in Parliament. Observers from the Western world such as the EU said that the 2010 elections did not meet international standards. Sudan’s latest elections were held in 2015. Omar al-Bashir was running for re-elections. There were sixteen presidential candidates. However, many opposition parties called for a boycott of the elections. President Omar al-Bashir won the election by a landslide. He obtained 94.05% of the votes. The voter turnout was however low at 46.40%. Most of the presidential candidates were independents, because parties chose to boycott these elections. The National Congress party won 323 out of 426 seats. Western observers criticised the Sudanese election results and procedure.
In 2015, there were 30.5% women in lower house parliament and 35.2% women in upper house
Has signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women