Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa. 70.3% of it’s land is Agricultural. Despite experiencing civil unrest, Somalia has maintained a healthy informal economy . It maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia has the highest inflation rate. Somalia has the longest coastline on the mainland of Africa. Somalia is a semi-arid country with about 1.64% arable land . About 85% of local residents are ethnic Somalis . Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia. Some of the environmental problems the country faces include: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Somalia is a parliamentary representative democracy republic . President of Somalia is head of state ,and commander-in-chief of the Somali Armed Forces and a selected Prime Minister as head of government . The national parliament of Somalia is bicameral. It consists of a 275 seat lower house and 54 representative- Upper House. The legislature elects the president.
In the 2012 elections, there were 25 presidential candidates. Prominent leaders who were presidential aspirants included incumbent President Sharif Ahmed , Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali and Speaker of Parliament Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aden , former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed , renowned scholar Prof. Dr. Mohamed Abdiweli Sheikh Yussuf Direed, journalist Yusuf Garaad Omar , social activist Hassan Sheikh Mohamud , and Professor Ahmed Ismail Samatar . After the first round of voting, former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed emerged as the frontrunner, amassing 64 votes. Mohamud was a close second with 60 votes. Mohamud went on to win the second round, defeating Sharif Ahmed by 190 votes to 79. Outgoing President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed conceded defeat and congratulated Hassan on his victory. The most recent elections in Somalia were held in 2017. Due to the ongoing civil war, security was tight. On the voting day, traffic was banned in the city, schools were closed and flights to and from the airport were suspended. There were 21 presidential candidates. The most prominent candidates included the incumbent President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud , incumbent Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke , former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed , and former Prime Minister Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed . Since no candidate achieved the required two-thirds of votes to win in the first round, the top four candidates (Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, and Omar Abdirashid Sharmarke) advanced to the second round. Omar Abdirashid Sharmarke however dropped out. For the remaining three candidates, none reached the required threshold in the second round of voting, and third-place Ahmed was eliminated. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud conceded defeat,negating the need for a final vote.
In 2016, there were 24% women in parliament..
The constitution of Somalia states that 30% of MPs shou the 30% representation for female MPs was frowned upon by the elder advisors who said it was too great a move in accordance with Somali culture.