São Tomé and Príncipe, is a Portuguese-speaking island nation. It consists of two archipelagos around the two main islands: São Tomé and Príncipe. São Tomé and Príncipe is the second-smallest African country after Seychelles, as well as the smallest Portuguese-speaking country. The government sector accounts for about 11% of employment.The main crop on São Tomé is cocoa, representing about 95% of agricultural exports. The country imports most of its food. The economy has become increasingly dependent on cocoa. Sao Tome and Principe's army is a tiny force with almost no resources at its disposal and would be wholly ineffective operating unilaterally.
The president of the republic is elected to a five-year term by direct universal suffrage and a secret ballot, and must gain an outright majority to be elected. The president may hold up to two consecutive terms. The prime minister is appointed by the president, and the fourteen members of cabinet are chosen by the prime minister. The National Assembly, the supreme organ of the state and the highest legislative body, is made up of 55 members, who are elected for a four-year term and meet semiannually. Justice is administered at the highest level by the Supreme Court. The judiciary is independent under the current constitution.
In 2011, presidential elections were held in Sao Tome and Principe. In the first round, the national electoral commission recorded a turnout of 68%.There were 120 presidential aspirants. Manuel Pinto da Costa (who was an independent) and Evaristo Carvalho of the Independent Democratic Action won the most votes (35.6% and 21.8% respectively), but neither candidate received enough support to claim a majority. Observers sent to monitor the election, declared that the election process was free and fair. In the final round, Manuel Pinto da Costa won with 52.88% votes. The most recent elections were held in 2016. There were five candidates, including incumbent President Manuel Pinto da Costa,two former prime ministers, Evaristo Carvalho from Independent Democratic Action and Maria das Neves from the MLSTP/PSD, as well as two independents. Carvalho led the first round with 49.88%, necessitating a second round against President Pinto da Costa. However, Pinto da Costa refused to participate in the second round, alleging fraud and calling for a boycott. Therefore, Carvalho won the second round with 100% of vote.