Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa. It is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. It is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups. The official language is English. Nigeria has emerged as Africa's largest economy- economic growth over the last five years has been driven by growth in agriculture, telecommunications, and services. However, over 62% of Nigeria's 170 million people still live in extreme poverty. It has a literacy rate of 59.6%. According to the CIA, Nigeria has been hobbled by inadequate power supply, lack of infrastructure, delays in the passage of legislative reforms, an inefficient property registration system, restrictive trade policies, and inconsistent regulatory environment, a slow and ineffective judicial system, unreliable dispute resolution mechanisms, insecurity, and pervasive corruption.

Political Profile/Structure/System

The president presides as both head of state and head of the federal government; the leader is elected by popular vote and at least 25% of the votes cast in 24 of Nigeria's 36 state to a maximum of two 4-year terms.The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. The House of Representatives contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state is determined by population and serve for 4 year terms.

Elections and Political Parties

According to a gentlemen's agreement within the ruling Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) power is to rotate between the predominantly Muslim north and Christian south every two terms. In 2011, Nigeria held its parliamentary and presidential elections. 19 parties had presidential candidates out of the 63 political parties registered in Nigeria. The election was postponed from January to April 2011 due to the release of a new electronic voter registration software. During the pre-election period, Nigeria was faced with pre-election violence. The elections were widely reported to have run smoothly with relatively little violence as compared to the previous elections. The voter turnout was 96.81%. 140 were killed in political violence during the pre-election period. Up to 1,000 people could have died in post-election violence. Goodluck Jonathan won the election with 58.89% votes.
The most recent elections were held in 2015. There were 14 presidential candidates. The incumbent president, Goodluck Jonathan sought his second and final term. Jonathan ran unopposed in the People's Democratic Party (PDP) primaries and won. All Progressives Congress was formed as an alliance of four opposition parties, the Action Congress of Nigeria, the Congress for Progressive Change, the All Nigeria Peoples Party, and the All Progressives Grand Alliance. Muhammadu Buhari won the All Progressive Congress’ presidential nomination. A presidential and Vice presidential Debate was conducted by the Nigerian media with majority of the candidates attending. The website of the Independent National Electoral Commission was hacked on election day by a group calling itself the Nigerian Cyber Army. Election observer missions [EOM] were deployed from the African Union (AU), Commonwealth of Nations, Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the European Union (EU), all of which gave positive remarks about the elections. The voter turnout was 43.65%. Muhammadu Buhari

By The Numbers

Lower house - 5.6% Upper House- 6.5%..


Participation and Inclusion

Nigeria has signed and ratified the Maputo Protocol. Has signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women