The Gabonese Republic has an estimated population of 1.5 million (UN, 2010). The capital is Libreville. Gabon has an area of 267,667 sq. km (103, 347 sq. miles). The main languages are French and Bantu-group languages. Gabon is a central African country rich is natural resources. It is bordered by Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and the Republic of Congo to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. With a population of 1.7 million over a surface area of 268,000 square kilometers, Gabon is a sparsely populated country with forests covering 85% of the territory. It possesses one of the highest urbanization rates in Africa with more than four in five Gabonese citizens living in urban areas. The capital, Libreville, along with Port Gentil, the economic capital of the country, is home to 59% of the population. One in two Gabonese citizens is under the age of 20, and the fertility rate in urban areas stands at almost four children per woman, against six in rural areas according to the 2012 Second Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Gabon.
In Gabon, the President is the head of state elected by universal suffrage for a renewable seven-year term. Ali Bongo Ondimba, the third President of the Republic of Gabon, was elected President on 16 October 2009. The President of the Republic ensures observance of the Constitution and, by arbitration, the effective functioning of the government and the continuity of the state. He defines, in cooperation with the government, national policy. He is the supreme holder of executive power, which he shares with the Prime Minister.
The President of Gabon is elected for a seven-year term in a single round of voting by plurality; whichever candidate places first is deemed elected, regardless of whether the candidate secured an absolute majority of votes. This system is thought to be a disadvantage to the fractious opposition, which would appear to have little chance of winning unless it united behind a single candidate Politics of Gabon takes place in a framework of a republic whereby the President of Gabon is head of state and in effect, also the head of government, since he appoints the prime minister and his cabinet.
AThe government is divided into three branches: the Executive (headed by the prime minister (although previously grabbed by the president), the legislative that is formed by the two chambers of parliament. The judicial branch, like other two branches, is technically independent and equal to other three branches, although in practice, since its judges are appointed by the president, it is beholden to the same president. Since independence the party system is dominated by the conservative Gabonese Democratic Party.
Gabon is a one party dominant state with the Gabonese Democratic Party in power. Opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power.
Education Youth (15-24years) literacy rate 98.8% Female 2008-2012 literacy rate 97.2% Female to Male enrolment Primary: 87% Secondary: 65% Tertiary: 42% ii) Elections Lower or single house Seat: 117; women: 20; % women: 17.1% Upper house or senate Seat: 102; women: 18; % women: 17.6%