Ethiopia is Africa’s oldest independent country. Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world. Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity. Ethiopia has grown at a rate between 8% and 11% annually for more than a decade and the country is the fifth-fastest growing economy among the 188 IMF member countries. Almost 80% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to tenants. Ethiopia is a one-party state

Political Profile/Structure/System

Ethiopia has a federal parliamentary republic framework. The prime minister is head of government. The president is indirectly elected by both chambers of Parliament for a 6-year term an is eligible for a second term. The prime minister designated by the majority party following legislative elections. It has bicameral Parliament which consists of the House of Federation or Yefedereshein Mikir Bete (which has 108 seats and members are indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 5-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives or Yehizb Tewokayoch Mekir Bete ( which has 547 seats of which members are directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms). The House of Federation is responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues and the House of People's Representatives is responsible for passing legislation. Ethiopia is considered to have an authoritarian regime and is ranked as one of the least democratic countries. Infact, there are no opposition party members in the current legislature.

Elections and Political Parties

The most recent Ethiopian general elections were held in 2015. The 547 members of the House of Peoples' Representatives were elected in single-member constituencies using the first-past-the-post system.

The results were announced one month after the elections took place. 1828 candidates contested the seats. 801 of the candidates were women.

Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front won 500 out of the 547 seats. The opposition called the election an undemocratic disgrace.
In the 2010 General elections, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front won 499 seats. European election observers said that the election fell short of international standards.

Elections and Political Parties ContDolor Sit Amet

AAccording to Human Rights Watch the government had a strategy to systematically close down space for political dissent and independent criticism.

The final report of the EU Election Observation Mission highlighted violations of freedom of expression, assembly and movement of opposition party members; misuse of state resources by the ruling party; and a lack of independent media coverage. The Prime Minister described the report as "useless trash" and the Chief EU Observer was not granted access to Ethiopia to present the final report.


By the Numbers

Women in parliament : 39%
Unemployment rate:
 total: 7.3%
 male: 5%
 female: 9.6% (2013 est.)
Literacy rate:
 total population: 49.1%
 male: 57.2%
 female: 41.1% (2015 est.)

Participation and Inclusion

Ethiopia has ratified the Maputo Protocol.