Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.Egypt has among the longest histories of any modern country, emerging as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa and the Arab world. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, and is projected to become one of the largest in the 21st century. The legal system is based on Islamic and civil law. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life ranks Egypt as the fifth worst country in the world for religious freedom. Egypt's economy depends mainly on agriculture, media, petroleum imports, natural gas, and tourism. The official language of the Republic is Modern Standard Arabic

Political Profile/Structure/System

Egypt has a semi-presidential system of government. The president is elected for two four year terms and the Parliament is unicameral. Parliament meets for one eight-month session each year; under special circumstances the President of the Republic can call an additional session.
Parliament consists of a maximum of 596 representatives. They sit for a 5 year term but can be dissolved by the president.
Voting is universal and compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18. Failure to vote can result in fine or imprisonment.

Elections and Political Parties

The most recent presidential election was held in 2014. There were only two candidates, former Egyptian defence minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Egyptian Popular Current candidate Hamdeen Sabahi. As defence minister, Sisi launched the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état that removed President Mohamed Morsi from office in the aftermath of the June 2013 Egyptian protests. Later on, Sisi installed an interim government, but remained Egypt's Minister of Defence and assumed the role of the country's First Deputy Prime Minister. Many political parties announced that they would not run for the elections. The Presidential Electoral Committee approved 80 domestic and 6 international civil society organizations to monitor the elections while rejecting 32 domestic and seven international CSOs. Due to low voter turnout, the voting day was extended. The Presidential Elections Committee announced that the final tally of votes by Egyptians at polling stations abroad in the presidential election had el-Sisi win with 94.5% of the votes (296,628 votes out of 318,033). Sabahi conceded defeat but later on contested the election results, even before they were officially announced.

By the NumbersDolor Sit Amet

AThe appeal was rejected by the Presidential Election Committee. The voter turnout was 47.50%. In the 2012 presidential elections, there were 13 presidential candidates. Initially, 23 candidates applied but 10 were banned from running office. The turnout in the first round of voting was 43.4%. Mohamed Morsi and Ahmed Shafik obtained majority of the votes with 24.78% and 23.66%. In the Second Round, Morsi won with 51.73% votes. Morsi, however, lasted little over a year as President before he was ousted in a military coup in July 2013.


By the Numbers

Women in parliament: 14.9%
Unemployment rate:
 total: 34.3%
 male: 28.7%
 female: 52.2% (2013 est.)
Literacy rate:
 total population: 73.8%
 male: 82.2%
 female: 65.4% (2015 est.)

Participation and Inclusion

The 2014 Constitution states in Article 11 that "the state shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution."
50% of members appointed by the president must be women, in accordance with the 2014 Constitution in order to guarantee gender equality.