AChad is a landlocked country in Central Africa. Chad had more than 200 ethnic groups. It’s official language is French and Arabic but over 100 ethnic languages are spoken. Chad is registered as a failed state and has been ranked seventh in the failed state index. In 2005, Chad was ranked the most corrupt country in the world. Chad ranks as the seventh poorest country in the world, 80% of its population lives below the poverty line. Over 80% of its population depends on livestock and subsistence farming as a livelihood. The cotton and labor market account for 80% of its export earnings. Chad has a literacy rate of 33% and child labor is very common. .
The president of Chad dominates the political system. . The president has the power to appoint the prime minister and the cabinet, and exercises considerable influence over appointments of judges, generals, provincial officials and heads of Chad's parastatal firms.In cases of grave and immediate threat, the president, in consultation with the National Assembly, may declare a state of emergency. The president is directly elected by popular vote for a five-year term; in 2005 constitutional term limits were removed, allowing a president to remain in power beyond the previous two-term limit.
Chad is a one party dominant state. The Patriotic Salvation Movement is the dominant party. Human Rights Watch has criticized the election process in Chad stating that they have problems such as electoral fraud, multiple voting, underage voting and low voter turnout. In the 2016 presidential election, President Idriss Déby ran for a fifth term in office and was expected to win. Chad’s opposition led a large scale nationwide shutdown to protest the president’s continuing 26-year tenure. On the day of the election mobile internet, fixed internet connections and SMS messaging were cut. Furthermore, many foreign TV operators could not cover the post election scene as their filming licenses were not renewed. Idriss Déby won the elections with 59.92 votes.
In the 2011 presidential elections, opposition parties boycotted the elections demanding electoral reforms. President Idriss Déby won the elections with 88.66% votes. In the 2011 parliamentary elections, the Patriotic Salvation Movement won 110 out of 187 seats. Another 20 went to the party’s allies giving the president and his political party absolute power. The 2017 parliamentary elections have been postponed due to inadequate funds.
Women in parliament: 12.8% (2012)
The Chad government ratified the CEDAW in 1995.