Burundi is a landlocked country located in East Africa. It is one of the smallest countries in Africa. It has been plagued with a 12 year ethnic based war between the Hutu and Tutsi ethnic groups. Burundi is a rural society with only 13% living in urban areas. Burundi is considered to be resource- poor and underdeveloped in the manufacturing sector. About 80% of its people live in poverty. The country’s primary exports are coffee and tea. Coffee makes 93% of Burundi’s exports. Because of its poverty, Burundi is dependant on foreign aid. In the World Economic Forum’s Network Readiness Index( an indicator that determines the development level of a country’s information and communication technologies), Burundi is ranked second to last. Many Burundians have migrated to other countries as a result of the civil war.

Political Profile/Structure/System

Burundi is a presidential representative democratic political system. The president is the head of state and government. Burundi’s legislative branch is bicameral in nature. It consists of the Transitional National Assembly and Transitional Senate. The transitional national assembly consists of 121 members. 100 of the members are directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and the 21 co-opted members include 3 Twas and 18 Women. The Senate consists of 49 seats. 34 members are indirectly elected by an electoral college of provincial councils using a three round voting system which requires a two thirds majority vote in the first two rounds and a simple majority vote for the two leading candidates in the final round; 4 seats are reserved for former heads of states, 3 seats are reserved for Twas and 8 seats for women.The president is directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds (if needed) for a five year term.

Elections and Political Parties

In Burundi’s 2010 elections,President Pierre Nkurunziza was said to have held a campaign of intimidation and voter fraud. All other candidates pulled out of the elections leaving only Nkurunziza. 5 opposition candidates pulled out of the presidential elections claiming that the government had the intent of rigging it. A day before the elections, there were grenade attacks. The National Liberation Front (FNL), an opposition party were suspected to be behind the attacks. The members of the party denied the claim. President Pierre Nkurunziza, having no opposition, won the elections with a 91.8% In Burundi’s 2015, the ruling party and the opposition party disagreed on whether President Nkurunziza was eligible to run for a third term. The African Union and the United States both agreed that the President should not fun for a third term. 17 opposition parties boycotted the elections because of President Nkurunziza bid for a third term. President Nkurunziza won the elections by 69.41%.

By the NumbersDolor Sit Amet

AProportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%) - 36
Literacy rate:
total population: 85.6% male: 88.2% female: 83.1% (2015 est.)

Participation and Inclusion

The constitution mandates 30% of the Transitional National Assembly to be female.The Transitional Senate, also mandates a 30% of female membership. Each province has 2 members( one Hutu and one Tutsi ).

National Anthem